Impact of Transformational Leadership on Business Performance Article Review
Explanation & Answer length: 2000 words.
Word count requirements The word count for this assignment is 2,000 words. You must state on the front of your assignment the number of words used and this will be checked. The main text for this assignment must be word-processed in Arial, font 12, double spacing, minimum 2cm margins all around. You must observe the word count specified in this assignment brief. The School has a policy of accepting variations to the recommended word count of plus or minus 10%. What does this mean for you? Markers will mark your work up to the word count maximum plus 10% and then will stop marking; therefore all words which are in excess of the word count plus 10% will not be marked. Where your word count is more than 10% below that specified, it is likely that this will result in a lack of analytical depth or relevant content, which will be reflected in the mark assigned. What is in the word count?
The word count includes: - the main text, including in-text reference citations and quotations. The word count does not include: - Appendices. These may be used to include supporting data, which may be too detailed or complex to include as a Table. They are not a device to incorporate material, which would otherwise cause you to exceed the word limit. - Title page Contents page Abstract/executive summary Tables, figures, legends Reference lists Acknowledgements Page 1 of 11 ASSESSMENT TASK: A 2,000 word report taking a student-found research article, critically evaluating the methods used and creating an argument for an alternative approach. BREAKING THE TASK DOWN: A) Choosing your own, student-found, research article. ● You will be pointed to examples of appropriate research articles to help you make your own choice during workshops and on the VLE.
You cannot use any of the research articles that are used as examples during workshops/on the VLE - you must choose your own article that you have found yourself. ● Your module leader will help you choose your research article and will need to approve your research article is appropriate as part of your formative feedback. ● To be ‘appropriate’ the research article needs to clearly explain what methods have been used to gather and analyse data, and to present the findings. To test whether your research article is suitable, please look for these four aspects of research: 1. 2. 3. 4. data collection methods data analysis techniques presentation of results discussion of the findings
● If you can clearly identify these 4 aspects of research in the research article (i.e. if the author clearly explains these aspects to you and you understand them) then you have an ‘appropriate’ research article (i.e. you have enough information to successfully complete your assessment task). ● As long as you can identify the above 4 aspects, your research article can be on any topic of your choice; can use one or more methods; be based on primary and/or secondary data; be based on qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods approaches. ● You can only base your assessment on 1 research article about a topic (not on multiple articles about a topic). Page 2 of 11 B) Critically evaluating the methods used.
● In your summative assessment you will need to clearly explain the methods in the research article and then critically evaluate them. ● Please ensure that you do this for all 4 aspects of methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. data collection methods data analysis techniques presentation of results discussion of the findings ● You will therefore need to describe what methods have been used by the author(s) for each of the 4 aspects… ● ...and then critically evaluate the appropriateness of the choices made for each of the 4 aspects for the research undertaken. Think about: ○ The strengths and weaknesses of each of the 4 aspects (data collection, data analysis, presentation of results, discussion of the findings...) ○ The extent to which the 4 aspects are transparent (how clear they are in the research article or whether they are potentially misleading)...are there any ethical concerns, for example?
○ Whether overall the choices made have contributed towards rigorous, relevant research... or not?) ● This is a methods module so it is really important to read into each of the methods used by the author(s) so you understand them and can critique them. You should reference the methods literature you have read to support the points you make. C) Creating an argument for an alternative approach. ● You then need to create an argument for an alternative approach which would support/extend/develop the research further (i.e. make it better/stronger overall). ● You should address the limitations/weaknesses that you have identified via the critical evaluation of your research article (this should, again, address all 4 aspects of methods).
● An ‘alternative’ approach means putting forward an alltogether different way of conducting the research. A few ‘tweaks’ (minor adjustments) on each bit of what the original research article did will not suffice. Page 3 of 11 ● The alternative approach is just as important as, and therefore should be just as developed, as your critical evaluation of the methods used.
Think your alternative approach through and reflect on how a different way of thinking about the research theoretically and conducting it practically might lead to different forms of knowledge on the research topic and how we might come to think of the topic differently as a result. • Consider the alternatives to the choices the author has made. For example, if your research article is mainly based on qualitative methods, consider a more quantitative approach for your alternative, and vice-versa. Consider different ways of sampling, different methods of data collection, collecting data from more or other people/sources, trying different analysis techniques, different ways of displaying and interpreting findings/results etc. etc.
● You may find it useful to collect and include additional evidence related to your research article for inspiration. (i.e. your topic may have been researched and written about by other authors too - how did they approach the research? what methods choices did they make? what did they find out that is different?) - While your assessment will be based on the evaluation of 1 research article, you can still look at other articles for ideas for your plan for an alternative approach. Please do include references to such other articles, if they have been useful/instrumental to your thinking.
● Again, you should reference the methods literature you have read to support the points you make. If a more qualitative approach would add more depth to the research, for example, who says so/how do you know that? Follow the experts’ recommendations when designing your alternative approach and reference them to help justify/add strength to your decisions. ADDITIONAL TIPS: ● Make use of formative feedback! ● It is really important to make use of formative feedback. ● You can receive formative feedback informally throughout the module during workshops via discussing your ideas with your module leader and with your peers.
Page 4 of 11 ● Half-way through the term, we will have a formal formative feedback workshop to approve your research article and give feedback on your overall plan for the summative assessment. You must come to this workshop prepared with: ○ Your chosen research article ○ Your 1-page poster which showcases what your chosen research article is about, what methods have been used, what your ideas are for critiquing those methods and what ideas you have for designing an alternative approach for the research. ● Increase your chances of having your research article and summative plan approved by your module leader by coming to workshops, being prepared and having informal conversations about your ideas throughout.
You should start thinking about your research article early on in the term. ● You should use the Assessment Audit Form to guide you through your assessment - this can be found on the VLE page of the module. Practical tips: ● This assessment must be written in a report format. • This is different to an essay and we will cover this in class • It must include subheadings • It may include appendices (not included in the wordcount) Referencing: The principle of referencing is to assume that the reader has no knowledge. • You must reference • This is a methods module – you must reference your methods • When you first introduce a technical term, you should describe it/explain it and reference it so readers can read into it further if they want to. So, when you first explain/define any research methods terms you should reference them using a text book or journal article.
• When you introduce your research article, you should provide a full reference to it and the link to the article so the reader can locate it and read it. The full reference should also be in your reference list. • All references should comply with the Harvard Referencing System. Page 5 of 11 Example structure for your 2000-word summative reports: A. A description of and a link to the case study. (approx. 200 words) B. A critical evaluation of the: (approx. 800 words overall) ○ data collection methods ○ analysis techniques ○ presentation of results ○ discussion of the findings (Each of these should be clearly separated via sub-headings to ensure that you have addressed them all… They do not carry a certain amount of marks each or have to be split equally in terms of word count and how many paragraphs… If you have more to say on data collection methods then that is fine but you must say something about them all)
C. Recommendations for an alternative approach to support / extend / develop the research further with reasoning. (approx. 800 words overall) (Now you need to propose another/ a better way to conduct the research… This should come as a separate section at the end of your critique where you put forward overall all the things you would do differently… It is important to ensure that you address all 4 aspects…use subheadings where appropriate to separate your ideas...again, there is no ‘amount’ you have to say on each idea… This part of the assessment is equally important to your critical evaluation section so should be about as long…don’t fall into the trap of having a long critical evaluation and then just 1 paragraph on your alternative approach at the end.
Give it an equal amount of thought and writing space...and reference just as much) D. Don’t forget to conclude! (approx. 200 words) This doesn’t just mean to ‘summarize’. You should reiterate your overall argument and convince the reader of why your approach will lead to better/more useful research. You should also be reflexive of your argument, its limitations and possibilities for future research. END OF ASSESSMENT TASK Page 6 of 11 Generic marking criteria G1: Argument G2: Structure G3: Use of sources G4: Referencing G5: Presentation Page 7 of 11 Module specific learning outcomes relevant to this assessment S1: Use suitable methods to collect, collate and evaluate relevant data sources. S2: Evaluate the processes used in the collection, analysis, presentation and interpretation of information S3: Critically evaluate the quality of evidence and identify gaps and inadequacies.
S4: Appreciate a range of alternative approaches to research and demonstrate an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses S5: Demonstrate and utilise the skills needed for effective group and teamwork Comments on assessment criteria: The marker will insert feedback based on the generic marking criteria and module specific learning outcomes. Suggestions for improvement: Date: Marker: Page 8 of 11 Generic Assessment Criteria 1st 70-100 2:1 60– 69 ARGUMENT inc. CRITICALITY ➢ Answers the question set fully and thoughtfully linking their answer to broader discussions in the discipline and/or developing new perspectives on the question ➢ Articulates a clear position on the issue ➢ Presents a strong, focused argument, well supported by impressive analysis and evidence
➢ The points being made are clear and convincing for the reader throughout the work STRUCTURE ➢ Has an engaging introduction that contextualizes the issue, states the subject and the focus of the work and line of argument that will be taken ➢ Has well-structured paragraphs, that have one main idea and strong supporting material ➢ Has good links between paragraphs that result in work that flows well ➢ Has a powerfully convincing conclusion ➢ Answers the question set clearly and in sufficient detail ➢ Articulates a clear position on the issue ➢ Has a clear introduction that states the subject and purpose of the work and line of argument that will be taken USE OF SOURCES inc. QUOTATIONS ➢ Understood and integrated complex and/or theoretically sophisticated material into their own work. ➢ Demonstrated excellent independent research skills by sourcing additional scholarly material relevant to topic ➢ Has used direct quotations only when absolutely necessary
➢ Paraphrased sources well and integrated points into their own argument to good critical effect rather than describing position of others ➢ Demonstrates understanding of arguments and esp. critiques found in source material & integrated them well into own argument. Page 9 of 11 REFERENCING PRESENTATION ➢ The reference format (in-text citation and Reference List) is used accurately throughout ➢ Formatting of Reference List correct ➢ No spelling or grammatical errors ➢ Appropriate tone and use of language ➢ Correct punctuation ➢ The reference format (in-text citation and Reference List) is used accurately - except for a few minor errors of formatting ➢ One or two minor spelling and grammatical errors ➢ Appropriate tone and use of language 2:2 50- 59 3rd 40-49 ➢ Presents an argument with relevant analysis and supporting evidence ➢ The points being made are clear to the reader ➢ Other perspectives on the issue are acknowledged even if criticality is not fully present ➢ Mostly answers the question set– some irrelevance ➢ Presents a basic argument with some analysis but predominantly contains description / summary and little or no criticality ➢ The points being made can be followed with some effor
t ➢ Has well-structured paragraphs that have one main idea and supporting material ➢ Links between paragraphs are there but could be stronger ➢ Has a clear conclusion which brings together the main points and answers the question ➢ Has included additional material into their paper to strengthen analysis or broaden understanding ➢ Good use of paraphrasing ➢ Direct quotations used, but linked well to points being made ➢ Has an introduction that states the subject and argument of the work, but is not totally clear ➢ Has separate paragraphs that have one main idea and some supporting material ➢ Some links between paragraphs work ➢ Has a conclusion which repeats the main points ➢ Demonstrates understanding of the arguments used in source material ➢ Has used and integrated the recommended reading well. ➢ Tendency to be over-reliant on direct quotations rather than paraphrasing, breaking the flow of their writing and argument. ➢ The reference format (in-text citation and/or Reference List) has consistent and/or frequent errors ➢ Mostly accurate spelling and grammar usage but needs careful proofreading – a few careless errors ➢ Shows a reasonable grasp of academic style and vocabulary ➢ Addresses the question but in a roundabout way and/or goes off on a tangent
➢ The argument is not clear with more summary and “telling the story” than analysis ➢ The point of the work becomes lost in places ➢ It is difficult to discern the focus of the work in the introduction ➢ Has poor paragraph development – main ideas are left undeveloped or there is more than one main idea in paragraphs ➢ Links between ➢ Basic understanding of source material ➢ Insufficient sources used, with the effect of being over-reliant on a few or poor quality sources. ➢ Frequent use of direct quotations to the point of distraction for the reader ➢ ➢ Uses language which occasionally gets in the way of meaning or is not appropriate to the audience ➢ Frequent spelling and grammatical errors Page 10 of 11 ➢ The reference format (in-text citation and Reference List) is not Harvard and/or is used inaccurately ➢ Marker not confident that secondary citations are accurately presented Correct punctuation paragraphs are absent or not clearly stated ➢ Has a conclusion with little detail / unclear CF 30-39 F 0-29 ➢ Fails to answer the question set ➢ No evidence of an argument or any use of evidence
➢ The point of the entire work is confused ➢ Fragments of disconnected material, no one perspective established ➢ Does not address the topic or answer the question ➢ No argument or evidence provided ➢ There does seem to be any real point to the work or it answers an entirely unrelated question ➢ Has an introduction which is confused or serves little purpose for the reader ➢ Has little sense of paragraphing – paragraphs are too long or too short – main ideas and supporting material are confused ➢ Has a conclusion that does not round the work off but raises more issues ➢ No introduction in the accepted sense ➢ Little attempt to organise into paragraphs – very confused ➢ No conclusion ➢ Has not demonstrated sufficient grasp of source material ➢ Poor judgment in selecting sources – poor quality and/or nonscholarly
➢ Work is dominated by direct quotations with short passages of commentary in between ➢ The reference format (in-text citation and Reference List) is not Harvard and/or is used inaccurately ➢ Marker not confident that secondary citations are accurately presented ➢ Missing items from the Reference List ➢ Uses language which often gets in the way of meaning and/or is entirely inappropriate for an academic piece of work ➢ Frequent spelling and grammatical errors ➢ Little evidence of understanding source material ➢ Poor judgment in selecting sources – poor quality and/or nonscholarly ➢ Reliant on Wikipedia or lecture notes for construction of work ➢ Work is almost entirely made up by direct quotations or bullet points ➢ The reference format (in-text citation and Reference List) is not Harvard and/or is used inaccurately ➢ Marker not confident that secondary citations are accurately presented ➢ Missing items from the Reference List ➢ Sentences that cannot be understood ➢ Student should be counseled re use of academic English and referred for specialist help. Page 11 of 11
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