Central Route and Peripheral Route of Persuasion Analytical Review

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Central Route and Peripheral Route of Persuasion Analytical Review

What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  How Is It Said? The Channel of Communication  Active experience or passive reception? Active experience strengthens attitudes  Repetition and rhyming of a statement serves to increase its fluency and believability Advertising: “Have a Coke and A Smile” Political slogans: Make America Great Again vs. Stronger together  Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  How Is It Said? The Channel of Communication  Personal versus media influence  Media influence: The two-step flow  Process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others  While Headlines are basically click bait, the substance should consist of reporting what others have said and the information that backs it up.

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  How Is It Said? The Channel of Communication  Personal versus media influence  Comparing media  The more lifelike the medium, the more persuasive its message, which is why internet media sites have video and written stories. Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  To Whom Is It Said? The Audience  How old are they?   Life cycle explanation  Attitudes change as people grow older Generational explanation  Attitudes do not change; older people largely hold onto the attitudes they adopted when they were young Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education.

Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  To Whom Is It Said? The Audience  What are they thinking?   Forewarned is forearmed—If you care enough to counterargue Distraction disarms counterarguing  Words can promote candidate/product  Visual images keep us occupied so we don’t analyze the words Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  To Whom Is It Said? The Audience  What are they thinking?  Uninvolved audiences use peripheral cues  Ways to stimulate people’s thinking  Use rhetorical questions  Present multiple speakers  Make people feel responsible  Repeat the message  Get people’s undistracted attention Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. How Can Persuasion Be Resisted?  Strengthening Personal Commitment  Challenging beliefs  Developing counterarguments

 Attitude inoculation  Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. How Can Persuasion Be Resisted?  Real-Life Applications: Inoculation Programs  Inoculating children against: Peer pressure to smoke https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b0StkG0H0Ak  The influence of advertising  Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. How Can Persuasion Be Resisted?  Prepare others to counter persuasive appeals  An ineffective appeal can be worse than none  A way to strengthen existing attitudes is to weakly challenge them Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  Who Says? The Communicator  Credibility  Believability  Sleeper effect  Delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-sleeper-effect-definition-psychology.html Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  Who Says? The Communicator  Credibility   Perceived expertise  Speaking Style: Speak confidently and fluently Perceived trustworthiness  Eye contact  Arguing against own self-interest  Speak quickly Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  Who Says? The Communicator  Attractiveness and Liking   Physical attractiveness Similarity Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education.

Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  What Is Said? The Message Content  Reason versus Emotion   Effect of good feelings Effect of arousing fear Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  What Is Said? The Message Content • Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon   Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Low-ball technique  Tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante  Used by some car dealers Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Low Ball Technique  Cialdini, Cacioppo, Bassett, and Miller (1978)  2 groups of 1st year psychology students   1 group asked if they would participate in a study starting at 7 AM 1 group asked if they would participate in a study but not told the time until after they agreed to participate.

They were then told it was at 7 AM and told they could back out. Which group had the most actual participants? Low Ball Technique  Only 24% of group 1 agreed to participate  While 54% of group 2 agreed to participate  95% of group 2 actually showed up but that is still more than double group 1. What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  What Is Said? The Message Content  One-sided versus two-sided appeals  Which one is more effective?  Depends on whether the audience already agrees with the message; if the audience is unaware of opposing arguments, it is unlikely later to consider the opposition Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

What Are the Elements of Persuasion?  What Is Said? The Message Content  Primacy versus recency   Primacy effect  Other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence Recency effect  Information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Recency effects are less common than primacy effects Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jim West/Alamy Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display Persuasion  Process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. What Paths Lead to Persuasion?  Central Route  Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts  Peripheral Route  Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness  Focuses on cues that trigger automatic acceptance without much thinking Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Central Route: The Need for Cognition  Cacioppo and Petty’s (1982) Need for Cognition Scale  When it comes to politics  Need for Cognition correlation info  Positive    Self-esteem Curiosity Effective problem solving  No relation to    Feminine sex-roles Sociability Years of formal education The Peripheral Route: Using scientific buzzwords Skin products http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/02/fashion/02skin.ht ml?_r=2&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin Pet Food http://vet.osu.edu/vmc/companion/ourservices/nutrition-support-service/myths-andmisconceptions-surrounding-pet-foods What Paths Lead to Persuasion?  Different Paths for Different Purposes  Peripheral route  Superficial and temporary attitude change  Central route  More durable and more likely to influence behavior Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion The Hurdles of the Persuasion Process Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. This is a graded discussion: 10 points possible due Jun 17 at 5pm 1 Chapter 7 persuasion discussion Instructions: Click on this Forum and create a link for the following... 1. Find one recent advertisement that uses a central route and one that uses the peripheral route. Attach the link to your discussion thread. You must attach the links by the due date to get credit. 2. Using the figure 7.1 Elements of Persuasion in the assignment folder, explain what type of audience each ad appeals to, what kind of processing is required, and precisely how it attempts to persuade. You must create a forum thread before you will be able to see what others have posted. No late work accepted for this assignment. 3. Come back and continue the discussion on a different day (at least 24 hours after your Part 1 post) commenting on at least two others and responding to any comments on your own.

It helps if you subscribe to the forum in order to know when others have posted. You must visit two different days. (24 hours apart) to get full credit. You must respond to replies from other students to your initial post to get credit. 4. Your first thread with links to the advertisements is due Wednesday 6/17 by 5:00 PM and replies to others is due by 6/21 5:00 PM. Remember you must participate in discussion on two different days and respond to two different classmates. No late work on this discussion. Late work on part 1 will result in a zero and no chance to complete part 2. Late replies will not be graded Search entries or author Unread Show all

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